Sunday Quiz – Know Your Crows! – Answers

Thank you for sharing the answers! Now I started seeing the difference between different crows.Loved the pictures and audio.I’m sure readers will enjoy this one.

Bug Woman - Adventures in London

Dear Readers,

What a corvid-aware bunch you are! In joint first place with 16 correct out of 16 were Sarah and Andrea Stephenson, you both deserve gold stars! In second place, only a single point behind, were Fran and Bobby Freelove with 15 out of 16. And in a very respectable third it’s Charlie Bowman, with 12 out of 16. I couldn’t be more choughed with the results :-).

Here are the answers….

1. Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)

2.Carrion Crow (Corvus corone)

3. Magpie (Pica pica)

4.Jay (Garrulus glandarius)

5. Rook (Corvus frugilegus)

Photo One by David Hofmann / CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0) 6. (Photo One) Raven (Corvus corax)

Photo Two by gailhampshire from Cradley, Malvern, U.K / CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0) 7. (Photo Two) Hooded crow (Corvus cornix)

Photo Three by By Andrew - originally posted to Flickr as chough, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7204919 8. (Photo Three) Red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax phyrrhocorax)

Ok, so as if that wasn’t tricky enough, here are the calls. It can be so hard to pinpoint them when they’re out of context.

9. Magpie alarm call. I always think of this as a ‘machine gun’.

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Sunday Quiz – Know Your Crows!

It is an interesting post. I enjoyed trying to identify the birds.

Bug Woman - Adventures in London

Dear Readers,

The crow family is not universally popular, and yet for me it contains some of the most interesting and enigmatic birds of all. There is no doubting their intelligence and ingenuity, even if their omnivorous habits and look-at-me antics attract the disgust of those who want to protect their smaller, more vulnerable garden birds. But can we tell them apart? And, trickiest of all, can we identify them by call alone? Hah! Here’s a challenge for you all.

Firstly, what crows are these? Some of these are my personal photographs and, just to make it a bit trickier, they aren’t always the best of shots. I know you’re up to the task.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Photo One by David Hofmann / CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0) 6. (Photo One)

Photo Two by gailhampshire from Cradley, Malvern, U.K / CC BY (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0) 7. (Photo Two)

Photo Three by By Andrew - originally posted to Flickr as chough, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7204919 8. (Photo Three)

Ok, so as if that wasn’t tricky enough, have a bash at identifying these crows by call alone. Good luck! NB All…

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SERENITY AT TIMES OF ANXIETY

‘There was once a virus named Corona,made many of us ill and proved fatal for many others. The cure for the difficult virus as well as vaccine wasn’t ready back then. No sooner had the world come to know about the virus than they had already fallen prey to the Pandemic.

Since the epidemiology of the pathogen indicated the mode of transmission being surface contact or through droplets,extensive measures were advised to prevent further spread of the virus.

One strategy that had worked to contain this virus was physical distancing norms and testing.RT-PCR,convalescent plasma transfusion,temperature screening had become part of our vocabulary back then.Lockdowns were enforced periodically with secondary waves of infections arising now and then. Finally a day came when no new cases crept up,the curves got flattened initially and later dipped. The pandemic got contained.’

Perhaps,it may be plausible for me to write a similar story in the not too distant future.

I wasn’t whiling away time past few months ,my head was buried in panic induced reports in the media,trying to figure out all about covid -19,reading about its history,biology,statistics and precautionary measures.

We are in the throes of the pandemic.People fear me as much as I fear them deserted streets and uncertainity prevails at all levels.Physical distancing and isolation requires us to be rational and trying not to panic. But when distancing becomes the new discourse,there are costs to be met. It’s not easy.Some being stranded,some with missed work ,no work or overwork,adverse socio economic impacts may all lead to anxiety gnawing at us. Change in existing routines and lifestyles and uncertainity may exacerbate the already existing stress.

While people started turning to embrace more technology to help compensate for the downsides of physical distancing, children and adults have something else too to add to their lockdown list of things apart from online school classes or working from home ;though it may seem trivial,and that’s NATURE.

Nature Abhors A Vacuum

Aristotle

Though our streets are deserted, shops closed, bus and railway stations and travel destinations empty nature is teaming with wildlife unless they are hunted down.

With reduced hustle and bustle of people and traffic we can hear sounds of birds better and conspicuous. I sighted these green feathered beauties outside the window. I identified them as ‘rose ringed parakeets'(psittacula krameri)

Rose ringed parakeet- water colour


The Male parakeet has black chin stripe and pink collar and so they are called rose ringed.Both the sexes have green head and long elegant tapered blue green tails and bright red beaks(Richard Grimmett,Carol Inskipp,Tim Inskipp).They have shrilling loud calls.The Male parakeet stretched out towards the female and locks on to its beaks- bill locking(Kotagama and Dunnet(2007)).Rose ringed parakeets are socially monogamous birds and pair for life(Brooks et al,1988)
This struck a chord in me.When we are now in a nettlesome situation , our life staring at us in distraught,theirs look pretty normal.Its a calm reminder that life goes on normal outside our poignant realm.
I found myself as an outlier witnessing a piquant scene . Nature soothes us and helps us endure such egregious times and makes life meaningful. Nature watch is one of the ways to allay anxiety in such unforeseen times,so if possible, let’s take a moment of our lives to peek out the window and we may find ourselves lucky to spot wild life out there and watch their fascinating ways unfold before our eyes.

“You don’t just mean the world to me,you are my world “

Dedrick D.l Pitter

Nature’s Marvels-ORIOLE

I never get bored watching the antics of these vibrant golden yellow birds with black eyestripe that resembles the eye makeup of a woman with kohl eye cosmetic and their alluring black bordered wings. They are named as Orioles ..We can see them forage in trees and hear them sing melodiously echoing through the stillness of the woods.

Their territorial face-off and chases enthuse me. Ripe papayas attracts them to the garden. It’s interesting to see how they clamp on to those fruits carving out the sweet flesh and gorge them with their slender pink beaks.

I just couldn’t resist myself from posting these pictures of one of the loveliest marvels of nature. Two of them I clicked with my camera and the other one I painted.

Eurasian golden oriole
Eurasian golden oriole – territorial chases
Black naped oriole and papaya-poster colour
calls of an Eurasian Golden Oriole from Soumo’s Birdbook

On a sluggish morning, when I saw you..

All days are not the same. Sometimes we feel energized to take up any challenges, other times we tend to lose hope, drained and devoid of insight. That’s what I felt one day and I kept procrastinating things. Aimless. Wasn’t able to figure out how to start with and what to??

I saw a tailor bird out amongst the undergrowth chirping and springing from one leaf to another, one twig to another briskly. We share no commonality, I began to ponder, analyse.

She/he did have an objective. May be it was food or nest building or something else but definitely it was preoccupied with the purpose that nobody decreed upon it.

I felt motivated to start my day from somewhere in whatever little way I can, without bothering much about the perfection and without being judgemental about myself.

My painting here is the outcome of my appreciation for you little bird.

WHY DID THE SUNBIRD FEED A CUCKOO?

One morning, as I was at my desk, I happened to catch sight of two sunbirds taking turns feeding a larger sized bird, perched on the branches of a semi evergreen forest outside my window. The sunbirds looked exhausted feeding insects to the big one.  I got intrigued by what I saw, for I had little knowledge of the mystery that’s unfolding before my eyes. Why would sunbirds as small as 10 cm in length feed a bird that is heterospecific and larger about a length of 15-16 cm? I sensed that this moment shall pass away in no time; I grabbed a white paper and started sketching outline of what I was seeing. Their interaction as I anticipated didn’t last for long, the trio had translocated.

   I was hell bent on finding the reason behind this subjugation. I went ahead recording in my nature journal the details such as

  • date of observation: 10/02/2013
  • temperature outside: cool at 25 degrees
  • in Middle Andaman islands
  • Name of the sunbirds: Olive backed sunbird (Cinnyris jugularis Andamanicus)(Linnaeus,1766,Syst. Nat.ed), identified with the help of the book. The underparts of both male and female are bright yellow; the backs are olive green in colour. The forehead, throat and upper breast of the adult male is a dark, metallic blue-black. They have slender decurved bills and feeds on nectar as well as small insects
  • Name of the larger bird: juvenile of Violet cuckoo (Chrysococcyx xanthorhyncus,Horsefield,1821), Violet Cuckoo is distributed throughout south east Asia and Indian subcontinent (Ali and Ripley 1981; Rasmussen and Anderton2012). The violet cuckoo species are partially migratory birds.The breeding cuckoo populations in northeast India (Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram and Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Bhutan and Bangladesh are migratory and they move southwards for wintering. Juveniles have barred rufous and greenish bronze feathers on the upper parts of the body, a bright rufous crown, rufous and mottled green or brown wings, a barred brown and rufous tail and brown-barred white under parts.( “Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus”. BirdForum. Retrieved 4 February 2014.)

     When I searched for the details on why is a sunbird feeding a cuckoo baby? ,there were lots of literature and research done on cuckoo as harbinger of spring and as “brood parasite”, the behaviour of relegating incubation and rearing of offspring to other “foster parent” birds and that Olive backed sunbird is known to be parasitized by cuckoos(Cheke and Mann 2008).

In the book The Avian Brood Parasites: Deception at the nest by Paul A Johngard, the author has referred to the adaptations of obligate brood parasites like common cuckoo  to ensure continuity of their species.In obligate brood parasitism the female cuckoos regularly deposit eggs in other species’nests, but do not perform any nest building, incubation or parental behaviour. Parasite benefits but host suffers from their breeding interactions.

Friedmann(1968) hypothesized that brood parasitism is more common in the cuckoos because they may have been able to “let go”their rather weak nest- building tendencies more easily than passerine groups which have strong nest building instincts and complex nests such as weavers and icterines.

Some of the publications elucidate the various tactics and circumstances that make a cuckoo species successful in parasitizing their host’s nests. I noted down some of them as follows:-

  • The breeding season of violet cuckoo  coincides with the breeding season of the host species. The sunbirds (Aethopyga spp.) and spiderhunters (Arachnothera spp.) are their host birds in India. (https://indianbirds.thedynamicnature.com/2017/05/violet-cuckoo-chrysococcyx-xanthorhynchus.html#Breeding). The breeding season of olive backed sunbird is January-February and May –July(Ali and Ripley,1974).
  • Female cuckoos have secretive and fast laying behaviours, but in some cases, males have been shown to lure host adults away from their nests so that the female can lay her egg in the nest.(Davies, N.B.(18 April 2011)”Cuckoo adaptations: trickery and tuning.”Journal of Zoology .284 1-14 (doi:10.1111/j.1469-798.2011.00810)
  • The parasite’s eggs are somewhat larger and rounded and harder for host species to pick up(Hoy and Ottow,1964)
  • Incubation period among cuckoos are unusually short compared to other families of bird(Lack, 1968), so the chances of predation of their eggs get reduced.
  • Cuckoo lays eggs with thick shells that provides resistance to cracking when the eggs are dropped in the host nest.(Antonov, Anton;Stokke,Bard G;Moksnes,Arne;Roeskaft,Eivin(2008)”Does the cuckoo benefit from laying unusually strong egg?”Animal Behaviour.76(6):1893-900. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.08.016.)
  • The cuckoo egg hatches earlier than the host’s, and the cuckoo chick grows faster.
  • The cuckoo’s chick evicts the eggs or young of the host.It has been suggested that ejection behaviour probably occurs in Asian and African emerald cuckoos and violet cuckoo, but observations are lacking(Friedmann, 1968). Disposal of potential competitors in the nest via nest ejection by common cuckoo was first described by Edward Jenner(1788). The chick has no time to learn this behaviour, so it must be an instinct passed on genetically. The chick encourages the host to keep pace with its high growth rate with its rapid begging call.(Adams, Stephen(2009-01-04). “Cuckoo chicks dupe foster parents from the moment they hatch”.(The Daily Telegraph, London. Retrieved 2010-04-30.”Cuckoo chicks start to mimic the cries that their foster parents’ young make from the moment they hatch, a scientist has proved.” The chick’s open mouth which serves as a sign stimulus.(Biology(4th edition)NA Campbell, ‘Fixed Action Patterns’(Benjamin Cummings NY, 1996) ISBNO-8053-1957-3
  • Wyllie(1981) described ejection as follows “From about 8-36 hours after hatching, the young cuckoo wriggles about in the bottom of the nest until it manoeuvres one of the host’s eggs against the side of the nest. Its back has a slight hollow between the scapulars which traps an egg against the nest wall. The cuckoo’s head is held down, almost touching its belly. Then with its feet apart and with muscular thighs the youngster slowly works the egg up the side of the nest, holding its tiny wings backward to prevent the eggs from rolling off. When it nears the nest rim the wings clasp the top as the legs push up from the side of the nest. Balancing the egg on its back to the top of the nest, the young cuckoo quivers and jerks for a few seconds and hangs there feeling with its wings to make sure the egg has gone over. Then it drops back into the nest cup. “This process is repeated until the nest is empty of other eggs or chicks.
  • It was disturbing to see this video but it says it all:-

Common Cuckoo chick ejects eggs of Reed Warbler out of the …

     After examining  the above reliable sources dual feelings crept into my mind as to whether I must feel happy seeing the parenting instincts of olive backed sunbirds towards caring for a much larger bird, or to empathize with the couple who were forced to grow up a species who may have been responsible for making them loose their own progeny.    

     What might have happened to their actual offspring?

They may have met with the same fate as in the above video. I had begun to understand the reason why those sunbirds were compelled to feed the cuckoo offspring. That was disheartening to know that the two smaller birds were deceived and victimized, having said that , I think they have enabled us to   gain knowledge of a kind of co evolutionary interaction named brood parasitism and made us ponder about the cost of parental care among birds.

The above painting was done using poster colours and set aside as one of my treasured encounters with bird behaviours.

Sources:-

  1. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_1512_2009-04-27.html (length of sunbird)
  2. Hails, C. J. (2018). Birds of Singapore. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, p. 148. (Call no.: RSING 598.295957 HAI); Madoc, G. C. (1947). An introduction to Malayan birds. Kuala Lumpur: Malayan Nature, p. 207. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.29595 MAD-[GBH]); Guy, G. (2002, October–December). Sunbirds of Singapore – from old world jungle jewels to modern national symbols. Nature watch: Official magazine of the Nature Society (Singapore), 10(4), 2–9. Singapore: Nature Society (Singapore), p. 6. Retrieved 2019, August 1 from Nature Society (Singapore) website: https://www.nss.org.sg/articles/3d0e9135-2Sunbirds.pdf; Briffett, C. (1993). The birds of Singapore. Kuala Lumpur; New York: Oxford University Press, p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 598.295757 BRI)
  3. 29. Madoc, G. C. (1947). An introduction to Malayan birds. Kuala Lumpur: Malayan Nature, p. 207. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.29595 MAD-[GBH]); Yong, D. L., & Lim, K. C. (2016). A naturalist’s guide to the birds of Singapore. England: John Beaufoy Publishing, p. 150. (Call no.: RSING 598.095957 YON); Gan, J. (2002). Some interesting notes on the Sunbirds. Wetlands, 9(3), 10–11. Singapore: Sungei Buloh, p. 10. (Call no.: RSING 508.5957 SBNP)
  4. Birds of the Indian Subcontinent by Richard Grimmett, Carol Inskipp and Tim Inskipp
  5. Linnaeus, Carl (1766). Systema naturae : per regna tria natura, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Volume 1, Part 1 (12th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 245.
  6. OLIVE-BACKED SUNBIRD CINNYRIS JUGULARIS NESTING FROM ELECTRIC WIRES IN GREAT NICOBAR ISLAND, S Pande, N Sant – indianbirds.in
  7. http://ls1.and.nic.in/doef/WebPages/Forest.html
  8. http://indianbirds.in/pdfs/IB_13_2_SridharanETAL_VioletCuckoo.pdf
  9. Bada, Ferdinand. “Cuckoo Birds – Animals of the World.” WorldAtlas, May. 15, 2018, worldatlas.com/articles/cuckoo-birds-animals-of-the-world.html.
  10. HOST LIST OF AVIAN BROOD PARASITES – 2 – CUCULIFORMES – Old World cuckoos Peter E. Lowther, Field Museum version 26 Apr 2013
  11. https://www.birdforum.net/opus/Chrysococcyx_xanthorhynchus
  12. THE AVIAN BROOD PARASITES: DECEPTION AT THE NEST, By Paul A. Johnsgard

Balcony views-Brown Backed needletail

I cherish the memories watching from my balcony a flock of elegant brown backed needle tail birds hovering over grassy vegetation backdropped by Panchwati Hills, Middle Andaman. The weather had been cool from November to February and that’s when these birds are sighted the most. They are brown backed except for the white under tail seen flying swiftly and constantly for hours with their sickle shaped wings and spiny tail ends . I have not seen them settle down anywhere within my field of vision , they would have probably got back to their nests by dusk.

I miss the alluring beauty of nature and the tranquility of the moment that embodied them. Fortunately I captured them in my illustration using poster colors.

INCONSPICUOUS

LESSER NECKLACED LAUGHING THRUSH- OIL PASTEL

I was woken up in the morning by the whistles and chuckles of birds that were not visible to me in the first instance. On scrutiny of my backyard forest, I got a glimpse of a flock of brown backed birds with black ‘necklaces’. They were scurrying through the thick undergrowth. Though I maintained my gaze into the sparsely lighted forest with leaves of different shades of green crisscrossed with trunks and offshoots of varying thickness I couldn’t identify them. Before I could do so they took wings afar and vanished.

By late morning I happened to spot one of them alighted for a siesta on a branch . With more details of the bird, such as white supercilium above the eyes, black eye ring …. coming into light, I was able to recognize the bird then and take snaps. My reference book for birds suggested the name Lesser Necklaced laughing thrush. ‘Laughing’? In retrospect, I recalled the cacophony of chuckling sounds I heard previously. Subsequently, I drew the bird on a paper with oil pastel.