JUNGLE CROW- BEYOND MYTHS

Jungle Crow- painting

This is another variety of crow from family Corvidae,that I have seen- Jungle Crow. They are all black and is distinguished from the house crow by the absence of any grey color on the neck. According to the Birds of the Indian Subcontinent by Richard Grimmett, Carol Inskipp and Tim Inskipp, the Himalayan ones are called Large Billed Crow(Corvus macrorhynchos) having wedge shaped tail and harsher calls compared with the Jungle crows of the Plains. Both of them have domed head, large bill and arched culmen. The tail of Indian Jungle crow is rounded and the legs and feet stout. 1

Calls: They are different from that of House Crow. They are harsher.Listen? https://avibase.ca/7357197F

Food Habits:- Jungle crows are known to have a wide range of food preferences. They feed on insects, bird eggs and chicks, while they scavenge dead animals. They eat various fruits and seeds of trees as well, and thus their role as a seed disperser has been pointed out (Ueda & Fukui, 1992). 9 Results portrayed that effective communication was present between both species upon finding food deemed as ‘interactions’, however Jungle crows portrayed more aggressive and competitive behavior towards House crows when food or perching area was scarce, thus portraying competitive behavior.2

Habitat:- They have a wide habitat range: around human habitation, well wooded country, forest edges…..3 During the day pairs may be involved in defending their territory but at night they may roost in large groups.4

MOBBING:-

A bonnet macaque being chased by Jungle crow
A Jungle crow chasing bonnet macaque

Jungle Crow relentlessly harry birds of prey, mobbing and aggravating both incubating birds on the nest and any low flying large raptors which is persistently chased. ………It will steal food from vulture nest sites, even from under the protesting gaze of the parent vulture which has regurgitated food for its chicks. 5

MOBBING AMONGST HUMANS

Konrad Lorenz, in his book On Aggression (1966), attributed mobbing among birds and animals to instincts rooted in the Darwinian struggle to survive. In his view, humans are subject to similar innate impulses but capable of bringing them under rational control12. Mobbing, as a sociological term, means bullying of an individual by a group, in any context, such as a family, peer group, school, workplace, neighborhood, community, or online. When it occurs as physical and emotional abuse in the workplace, such as “ganging up” by co-workers, subordinates or superiors, to force someone out of the workplace through rumor, innuendo, intimidation, humiliation, discrediting, and isolation, it is also referred to as malicious, nonsexual, non-racial/racial, general harassment.13 Has anyone been through this?

MYTHOLOGY:-

“The crow, amongst the Buddhist in Tibet, is believed to be the incarnation of the Mahakala or The Great Black one– the protector of the monasteries in Tibet.”6

……”.Crows pervade beliefs of Indian folk. Its guttural call, especially when sitting on a banana plant, heralds the arrival of a guest for meal. Its acceptance of preferred food accompanying ceremonies of funerals or on death anniversaries signifies the contentment of the departed soul.”7

………………….in some places, Hindus have the practice of offering food first to crows in the belief that their dead ancestors or parents’ souls reside in the birds…………………. ……………..As for other beliefs about crows in Hinduism, a particular call of a Jungle Crow outside one’s home could signify the impending death of a family member or relative, and another that a guest is about to arrive. And, if any of this does happen (by chance of course!), then the elders would say, “I told you so”!8

Crows, and especially ravens, often feature in legends or mythology as portents or harbingers of doom or death, because of their dark plumage, unnerving calls, and tendency to eat carrion………………In mythology and folklore as a whole, crows tend to be symbolic more of the spiritual aspect of death, or the transition of the spirit into the afterlife,………………………… https://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/wp/c/Crow.htm

In Japanese mythology, this flying creature is a raven or a jungle crow called Yatagarasu (八咫烏, “eight-span crow”)and the appearance of the great bird is construed as evidence of the will of Heaven or divine intervention in human affairs.  14

In Korean mythology, it is known as Samjogo During the period of the Goguryo kingdom, the Samjok-o was considered a symbol of the sun. The ancient Goguryo people thought that a three-legged crow lived in the sun while a turtle lived in the moon. http://folkency.nfm.go.kr/en/topic/detail/5550

The superstition that black crows announce future misfortune is probably due o misinterpretations(which come back to Middle Age) of the presence of crows near dead bodies. There is a rational explanation for that. Crows have a keen sense of smell and are hence attracted by the smell of death. That explanation was not known at that period of time and this is why the presence of crows near houses where someone had just died was interpreted as a subnormal phenomenon. Ref:- Delacroix, Eva and Valerie, Guillard(2008). Understanding ,defining and measuring the trait of superstition.

CACHING BEHAVIOR:-

Caching means storing away for future use.Food caching behaviour has been noted in sp. culminatus.10,11 Jungle Crows have also been observed stealing non-food items like golf balls (Poché 1981),and even spectacle frames (Aitken 1900).

Hiroyoshi Higuchi, Ph.D.,Professor Emeritus, The University of Tokyo, says “In crow study, I studied stone-placing on rail road tracks, dispersing garbage on street, attacking people, stealing soap bars from kindergarten, and making field fire by putting alight candles among fallen leaves in forest floors” http://hhiguchi.justhpbs.jp/#English

CLEVERNESS

Here’s an observation that proves how clever the Jungle crow is …..

https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/48604007#page/127/mode/1up-
A Jungle Crow mobbing a juvenile white bellied sea eagle- sketch

BOOKS :

There are some books that mentions the characteristics of a Jungle Crow and instills interest in us to read them.

  • In the book ‘Blacky The Crow‘, Thornton W.Burgess has written”………………and he will eat anything in the way of food that he can swallow. Often he travels long distances looking for food, but at night he always comes back to the same place in the Green Forest, to sleep in company with others of his family.” ……………..” You know Blacky has a weakness for eggs…….. We’ll tease them until they lose their tempers and forget all about keeping guard over those eggs. Then I’ll slip in and get one and perhaps both of them. My, how good those eggs will taste!”
  • In a poem ‘Crow’s Fall‘, Ted Hughs, crow decides to attack the sun because it was too white. This means that the Crow was ready to take on anything no matter how big they are.

CITATIONS:-

  1. Whistler, Hugh;Kinnear,N.B(1932). The Vernay Scientific Survey of the Eastern Ghats(Ornithological section). Journal
  2. Shanbhag, Anirudh P. et al. “Interspecific Behavioral Studies of House Crows (Corvus splendens protegatus) and Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos culminatus) on Mutual Foraging Sites.” (2012). https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Interspecific-Behavioral-Studies-of-House-Crows-and-Shanbhag-Ghosh/d3b9069856bb5a56b1e14beef3c368a78756be1d
  3. Birds of Bhutan and the East Himalaya- By Carol Inskipp, Richard Grimett, Tim Inskipp, Sherub, Bloomsbury Publishing 4/4/2019- Nature
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large-billed_crow#cite_note-11
  5. Crows and Jays by Steve Madge and Hilary Burn
  6. Vishnu’s Mount: Birds in Indian Mythology and Folklore.
  7. https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0074-0082
  8. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/open-page/the-bird-with-brains/article3007054.ece
  9. Diet of Jungle Crows in an Urban Landscape. file:///C:/Users/nicsi/Downloads/07_2-10.pdf
  10. Natarajan, V. (1992). Food-storing behaviour of the Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 89(3):375.
  11. Sharma, Satish Kumar (1995). Food storing behaviour of the Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos Wagler. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 92(1):123
  12. Kenneth Westheus Mobbing Archived 2011-08-12 at the Wayback Machine. uwaterloo.ca .
  13. Mobbing: Emotional Abuse in the American Workplace by Noa Davenport, Ruth D. Schwartz and Gail Pursell Elliott. 
  14. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon (1953). Studies in Shintō and Shrines: Papers Selected from the Works of the Late R.A.B. Ponsonby-Fane, LL. D. Dr. Richard Ponsonby-Fane Series. 1. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 374884.

Nature’s Marvels-ORIOLE

I never get bored watching the antics of these vibrant golden yellow birds with black eyestripe that resembles the eye makeup of a woman with kohl eye cosmetic and their alluring black bordered wings. They are named as Orioles ..We can see them forage in trees and hear them sing melodiously echoing through the stillness of the woods.

Their territorial face-off and chases enthuse me. Ripe papayas attracts them to the garden. It’s interesting to see how they clamp on to those fruits carving out the sweet flesh and gorge them with their slender pink beaks.

I just couldn’t resist myself from posting these pictures of one of the loveliest marvels of nature. Two of them I clicked with my camera and the other one I painted.

Eurasian golden oriole
Eurasian golden oriole – territorial chases
Black naped oriole and papaya-poster colour
calls of an Eurasian Golden Oriole from Soumo’s Birdbook

On a sluggish morning, when I saw you..

All days are not the same. Sometimes we feel energized to take up any challenges, other times we tend to lose hope, drained and devoid of insight. That’s what I felt one day and I kept procrastinating things. Aimless. Wasn’t able to figure out how to start with and what to??

I saw a tailor bird out amongst the undergrowth chirping and springing from one leaf to another, one twig to another briskly. We share no commonality, I began to ponder, analyse.

She/he did have an objective. May be it was food or nest building or something else but definitely it was preoccupied with the purpose that nobody decreed upon it.

I felt motivated to start my day from somewhere in whatever little way I can, without bothering much about the perfection and without being judgemental about myself.

My painting here is the outcome of my appreciation for you little bird.

WHY DID THE SUNBIRD FEED A CUCKOO?

One morning, as I was at my desk, I happened to catch sight of two sunbirds taking turns feeding a larger sized bird, perched on the branches of a semi evergreen forest outside my window. The sunbirds looked exhausted feeding insects to the big one.  I got intrigued by what I saw, for I had little knowledge of the mystery that’s unfolding before my eyes. Why would sunbirds as small as 10 cm in length feed a bird that is heterospecific and larger about a length of 15-16 cm? I sensed that this moment shall pass away in no time; I grabbed a white paper and started sketching outline of what I was seeing. Their interaction as I anticipated didn’t last for long, the trio had translocated.

   I was hell bent on finding the reason behind this subjugation. I went ahead recording in my nature journal the details such as

  • date of observation: 10/02/2013
  • temperature outside: cool at 25 degrees
  • in Middle Andaman islands
  • Name of the sunbirds: Olive backed sunbird (Cinnyris jugularis Andamanicus)(Linnaeus,1766,Syst. Nat.ed), identified with the help of the book. The underparts of both male and female are bright yellow; the backs are olive green in colour. The forehead, throat and upper breast of the adult male is a dark, metallic blue-black. They have slender decurved bills and feeds on nectar as well as small insects
  • Name of the larger bird: juvenile of Violet cuckoo (Chrysococcyx xanthorhyncus,Horsefield,1821), Violet Cuckoo is distributed throughout south east Asia and Indian subcontinent (Ali and Ripley 1981; Rasmussen and Anderton2012). The violet cuckoo species are partially migratory birds.The breeding cuckoo populations in northeast India (Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram and Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Bhutan and Bangladesh are migratory and they move southwards for wintering. Juveniles have barred rufous and greenish bronze feathers on the upper parts of the body, a bright rufous crown, rufous and mottled green or brown wings, a barred brown and rufous tail and brown-barred white under parts.( “Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus”. BirdForum. Retrieved 4 February 2014.)

     When I searched for the details on why is a sunbird feeding a cuckoo baby? ,there were lots of literature and research done on cuckoo as harbinger of spring and as “brood parasite”, the behaviour of relegating incubation and rearing of offspring to other “foster parent” birds and that Olive backed sunbird is known to be parasitized by cuckoos(Cheke and Mann 2008).

In the book The Avian Brood Parasites: Deception at the nest by Paul A Johngard, the author has referred to the adaptations of obligate brood parasites like common cuckoo  to ensure continuity of their species.In obligate brood parasitism the female cuckoos regularly deposit eggs in other species’nests, but do not perform any nest building, incubation or parental behaviour. Parasite benefits but host suffers from their breeding interactions.

Friedmann(1968) hypothesized that brood parasitism is more common in the cuckoos because they may have been able to “let go”their rather weak nest- building tendencies more easily than passerine groups which have strong nest building instincts and complex nests such as weavers and icterines.

Some of the publications elucidate the various tactics and circumstances that make a cuckoo species successful in parasitizing their host’s nests. I noted down some of them as follows:-

  • The breeding season of violet cuckoo  coincides with the breeding season of the host species. The sunbirds (Aethopyga spp.) and spiderhunters (Arachnothera spp.) are their host birds in India. (https://indianbirds.thedynamicnature.com/2017/05/violet-cuckoo-chrysococcyx-xanthorhynchus.html#Breeding). The breeding season of olive backed sunbird is January-February and May –July(Ali and Ripley,1974).
  • Female cuckoos have secretive and fast laying behaviours, but in some cases, males have been shown to lure host adults away from their nests so that the female can lay her egg in the nest.(Davies, N.B.(18 April 2011)”Cuckoo adaptations: trickery and tuning.”Journal of Zoology .284 1-14 (doi:10.1111/j.1469-798.2011.00810)
  • The parasite’s eggs are somewhat larger and rounded and harder for host species to pick up(Hoy and Ottow,1964)
  • Incubation period among cuckoos are unusually short compared to other families of bird(Lack, 1968), so the chances of predation of their eggs get reduced.
  • Cuckoo lays eggs with thick shells that provides resistance to cracking when the eggs are dropped in the host nest.(Antonov, Anton;Stokke,Bard G;Moksnes,Arne;Roeskaft,Eivin(2008)”Does the cuckoo benefit from laying unusually strong egg?”Animal Behaviour.76(6):1893-900. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.08.016.)
  • The cuckoo egg hatches earlier than the host’s, and the cuckoo chick grows faster.
  • The cuckoo’s chick evicts the eggs or young of the host.It has been suggested that ejection behaviour probably occurs in Asian and African emerald cuckoos and violet cuckoo, but observations are lacking(Friedmann, 1968). Disposal of potential competitors in the nest via nest ejection by common cuckoo was first described by Edward Jenner(1788). The chick has no time to learn this behaviour, so it must be an instinct passed on genetically. The chick encourages the host to keep pace with its high growth rate with its rapid begging call.(Adams, Stephen(2009-01-04). “Cuckoo chicks dupe foster parents from the moment they hatch”.(The Daily Telegraph, London. Retrieved 2010-04-30.”Cuckoo chicks start to mimic the cries that their foster parents’ young make from the moment they hatch, a scientist has proved.” The chick’s open mouth which serves as a sign stimulus.(Biology(4th edition)NA Campbell, ‘Fixed Action Patterns’(Benjamin Cummings NY, 1996) ISBNO-8053-1957-3
  • Wyllie(1981) described ejection as follows “From about 8-36 hours after hatching, the young cuckoo wriggles about in the bottom of the nest until it manoeuvres one of the host’s eggs against the side of the nest. Its back has a slight hollow between the scapulars which traps an egg against the nest wall. The cuckoo’s head is held down, almost touching its belly. Then with its feet apart and with muscular thighs the youngster slowly works the egg up the side of the nest, holding its tiny wings backward to prevent the eggs from rolling off. When it nears the nest rim the wings clasp the top as the legs push up from the side of the nest. Balancing the egg on its back to the top of the nest, the young cuckoo quivers and jerks for a few seconds and hangs there feeling with its wings to make sure the egg has gone over. Then it drops back into the nest cup. “This process is repeated until the nest is empty of other eggs or chicks.
  • It was disturbing to see this video but it says it all:-

Common Cuckoo chick ejects eggs of Reed Warbler out of the …

     After examining  the above reliable sources dual feelings crept into my mind as to whether I must feel happy seeing the parenting instincts of olive backed sunbirds towards caring for a much larger bird, or to empathize with the couple who were forced to grow up a species who may have been responsible for making them loose their own progeny.    

     What might have happened to their actual offspring?

They may have met with the same fate as in the above video. I had begun to understand the reason why those sunbirds were compelled to feed the cuckoo offspring. That was disheartening to know that the two smaller birds were deceived and victimized, having said that , I think they have enabled us to   gain knowledge of a kind of co evolutionary interaction named brood parasitism and made us ponder about the cost of parental care among birds.

The above painting was done using poster colours and set aside as one of my treasured encounters with bird behaviours.

Sources:-

  1. http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_1512_2009-04-27.html (length of sunbird)
  2. Hails, C. J. (2018). Birds of Singapore. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, p. 148. (Call no.: RSING 598.295957 HAI); Madoc, G. C. (1947). An introduction to Malayan birds. Kuala Lumpur: Malayan Nature, p. 207. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.29595 MAD-[GBH]); Guy, G. (2002, October–December). Sunbirds of Singapore – from old world jungle jewels to modern national symbols. Nature watch: Official magazine of the Nature Society (Singapore), 10(4), 2–9. Singapore: Nature Society (Singapore), p. 6. Retrieved 2019, August 1 from Nature Society (Singapore) website: https://www.nss.org.sg/articles/3d0e9135-2Sunbirds.pdf; Briffett, C. (1993). The birds of Singapore. Kuala Lumpur; New York: Oxford University Press, p. 69. (Call no.: RSING 598.295757 BRI)
  3. 29. Madoc, G. C. (1947). An introduction to Malayan birds. Kuala Lumpur: Malayan Nature, p. 207. (Call no.: RCLOS 598.29595 MAD-[GBH]); Yong, D. L., & Lim, K. C. (2016). A naturalist’s guide to the birds of Singapore. England: John Beaufoy Publishing, p. 150. (Call no.: RSING 598.095957 YON); Gan, J. (2002). Some interesting notes on the Sunbirds. Wetlands, 9(3), 10–11. Singapore: Sungei Buloh, p. 10. (Call no.: RSING 508.5957 SBNP)
  4. Birds of the Indian Subcontinent by Richard Grimmett, Carol Inskipp and Tim Inskipp
  5. Linnaeus, Carl (1766). Systema naturae : per regna tria natura, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Volume 1, Part 1 (12th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 245.
  6. OLIVE-BACKED SUNBIRD CINNYRIS JUGULARIS NESTING FROM ELECTRIC WIRES IN GREAT NICOBAR ISLAND, S Pande, N Sant – indianbirds.in
  7. http://ls1.and.nic.in/doef/WebPages/Forest.html
  8. http://indianbirds.in/pdfs/IB_13_2_SridharanETAL_VioletCuckoo.pdf
  9. Bada, Ferdinand. “Cuckoo Birds – Animals of the World.” WorldAtlas, May. 15, 2018, worldatlas.com/articles/cuckoo-birds-animals-of-the-world.html.
  10. HOST LIST OF AVIAN BROOD PARASITES – 2 – CUCULIFORMES – Old World cuckoos Peter E. Lowther, Field Museum version 26 Apr 2013
  11. https://www.birdforum.net/opus/Chrysococcyx_xanthorhynchus
  12. THE AVIAN BROOD PARASITES: DECEPTION AT THE NEST, By Paul A. Johnsgard

Balcony views-Brown Backed needletail

I cherish the memories watching from my balcony a flock of elegant brown backed needle tail birds hovering over grassy vegetation backdropped by Panchwati Hills, Middle Andaman. The weather had been cool from November to February and that’s when these birds are sighted the most. They are brown backed except for the white under tail seen flying swiftly and constantly for hours with their sickle shaped wings and spiny tail ends . I have not seen them settle down anywhere within my field of vision , they would have probably got back to their nests by dusk.

I miss the alluring beauty of nature and the tranquility of the moment that embodied them. Fortunately I captured them in my illustration using poster colors.

ROCK PIGEON

Ubiquitous yet fascinating

Rock pigeon- poster color
taking shelter on rooftop

We can see rock pigeons in villages and towns comfortable with human presence, feeding on insects and grains. Their grey body with black bars across wings, green and pink iridescence on neck are alluring. They feed usually in flocks and roost on roof tops or window shades. It’s entertaining to watch them bobbing heads, preening feathers and gathering twigs during nesting season. Their deep cutrr-coo calls and sounds of their flapping wings are one amid varied sounds that urban dwellers hear all day except that birds sounds are calming to our senses.

ALEXANDRINE PARAKEET- Poster color

high up on a tree

An Alexandrine parakeet perched on the highest point of a deciduous tree after it foraged on wild fruits a short while ago. The enchanting beauty of the parakeet enticed me to try emulating it on a paper.

It’s comparatively large with red beaks, red patch on wings, green feathers,pink collar,black chin stripe,long green tail with blue in the middle and yellow tips against the backdrop of a vast blue sky.

WHITE BREASTED WATER HEN

This bird is seen around vegetation close to freshwater pools and after rain. It’s interesting to see how it paces its large yellow feet meticulously picking up insects or worms from the wet soil. Usually calm but noisy with croaky calls during dusk. If disturbed the bird pauses and stops feeding.